Water Quality Testing Service

With water being the essence that runs life, complete analysis of this primary essential has become a possibility with our drinking water testing facility.

PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL TESTING (PC)

This testing panel includes multiple parameters for physical & chemical analysis of water by Robotic Analyzer and CFA technology. A total of 15 parameters are analyzed under this criteria, other than taste and odour.

This testing panel includes multiple parameters for physical and chemical analysis of water by Robotic Analyzer and CFA technology. A total of 15 parameters are analyzed under this criteria, other than taste and odour.

Physical
  • Colour
  • Turbidity
  • pH
  • Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
Chemical
  • Total hardness
  • Alkalinity
  • Chloride
  • Fluoride
  • Sulphate
  • Nitrate
  • Free Chlorine
  • Sulfide
  • Phenolic Compounds
  • Anionic Detergents
  • Cyanide
Physical Characteristics

The physical characteristics of water are very important as they are the first visibly noticeable factors. Ideally water should be colourless and odourless with a neutral pH. Presence of dissolved components like clay, silt, algal materials, etc. makes water turbid and a pH change can make it corrosive.

Chemical Characteristics

Ideally pure water should be non-reactive; however presence of some chemicals can alter this property and adversely affect health. Though tap water supplied is chlorinated, excessive chlorine generates chloroform which is carcinogenic. Also nitrates can impair oxygen transport in the body causing brain death, while fluoride can cause dental fluorosis and affect skeletal tissues. Sulfide causes diarrhea, while anionic detergents if ingested, change the pH of blood and can also burn the tissues. Presence of cyanide is generally due to contamination by industrial effluents and though the hazardous effects of excess deposition manifests quite late, it may affect thyroid and cause nerve damage.

ELEMENTS TESTING (E)

Elements though an essential as micronutrients for many biological functions, their levels in the human body can affect many critical functions. This panel analyzes for a total of 16 toxic elements in the water sample by the most robust technology of ICP.

Elements though an essential as micronutrients for many biological functions, their abnormal levels in the human body can affect many critical body processes. This panel analyzes for a total of 16 toxic elements in the water samples by the most robust technology - Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), touted to be the best for elemental analysis.

PARAMETERS
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Chromium (Cr6+)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Mercury (Hg)
  • Cadmium (Cd)
  • Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Arsenic (As)
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Zinc (Zn)
  • Aluminum (Al)
  • Nickel (Ni)
  • Boron
Essential parameters to be analyzed for Elements testing in water

Certain elements are required by the body in small amounts to support vital metabolic processes, whereas not only excess, even trace amounts of toxic elements can cause various deleterious effects. For e.g:

Lead - Retards development in children and affects memory in adults.

Iron - Usually precipitates as iron hydroxide and settles as rust colored silt in water. Iron can cause embryotoxicity, convulsions, respiratory and cardiac failure, etc.

Calcium - Hard water generally has a higher calcium content, and though it is important for strong teeth and bones, excessive amounts have been known to impair absorption of other micronutrients and also have a possible link with gastric cancer.

Magnesium - Though an essential micronutrient, excess has been linked to cerebrovascular disorders and also hepatic cancer.

Copper - Essential for good health but excess has been linked to cause vomiting, diarrhea along with damage to liver and kidney.

Manganese - A normal micronutrient present in foods consumed, it is also a component of rock and soil. The toxic effects manifest gradually and affect the nervous system.

Mercury - Found in natural ores and used in battery and light bulb manufacturing units, excess levels in the body can cause kidney damage.

Cadmium -Used in Photography and Metal plating industries, toxicity has been linked to cause kidney damage and is a potential carcinogen.

Molybdenum - An essential micronutrient which aids in breaking down proteins in the body, excessive levels have been linked to cause or in certain cases, worsen gout.

Selenium - Widely used in glass, pigment and alloys industry, and touted to be a powerful antioxidant, excess selenium deposition in the body over years can impair circulation, resulting in loss of hair, nails, etc.

Arsenic - Is not a desirable element to be exposed to or ingested as excessive levels have been linked to cause irregular heart beat, skin discoloration, damage to blood vessels, etc.

Zinc- An essential cofactor for multiple enzymatic activities in the human body, excessive levels of these have been linked to cause anemia, arteriosclerosis, damage to pancreas, etc.

Chromium - A major contaminant in industrial effluents, chromium-6 is touted to be the most toxic form and has been postulated to be a potential carcinogen.

Aluminum - Majorly used in automotive and aircraft industries as well as in food packaging, excessive has been linked to development of Alzheimer’s disease in certain cases.

Nickel - Found majorly in jewellery and used in alloy industry, its toxicity has been linked to cause asthma, allergy, birth defects, etc.

Boron - Widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and in glass manufacturing industries, boron toxicity has been linked to cause abdominal pain, cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, etc.

MICROBIOLOGY TEST (M)

This analysis is extremely important as presence of pathogenic microflora are the major responsible factors for multiple clinical disturbances. This panel includes testing for 2 parameters. Ideally this should be NIL in any water tested for safety.

This analysis is extremely important as presence of pathogenic microflora are the major responsible factors for multiple clinical disturbances. This panel includes testing for 2 parameters. Ideally this should be NIL in any water tested for safety. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis of parameters under this panel are available.

PARAMETERS
  • E.coli bacteria
  • Total coliform bacteria
Essential parameters to be analyzed in microbiological testing of water

Pathological contamination of water may occur due to contact majorly with human faeces and the major bacteria are the coliforms. Ideally these should be NIL in any potable water, as they can cause gastroenteritis, ulcer, etc.

Though chlorination is majorly done to kill these pathogenic microbes, contamination may still occur during transport or in the site of water storage. Hence, getting the final tap water tested for these is imperative and will highlight possible leaks which can introduce many more contaminants.

PESTICIDES TEST (PT)

Testing for pesticides is done using the most sensitive analytical technology of GC-MS. A total of 16 parameters are being estimated in water under this category.

Testing for pesticides is done using the most sensitive analytical technology of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 16 parameters are being estimated in water under this category.

PARAMETERS
  • Alachlor
  • Atrazine
  • Aldrin/Dieldrin
  • Alpha HCH
  • www HCH
  • Butachlor
  • Chlorpyrifos
  • Delta HCH
  • DDT
  • Endosulfan
  • Ethion
  • Gamma HCH
  • Malathion
  • Methyl parathion
  • Monocrotophos
  • Phorate
Essential elements to be analyzed in Pesticides water testing:

These are majorly organophosphates and carbamates which cause serious health hazards and affect the nervous and endocrine systems of the body. Some are also postulated to be carcinogenic in nature.

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TESTING (VOC)

Testing for VOCs are as essential as the presence of these can also be detected in packaged drinking water. Most of the testing facilities do not include a comprehensive menu under this category.

Testing for VOCs is essential as the presence of these can also be detected in packaged drinking water. Most of the testing facilities do not include a comprehensive menu under this category. However, in Whaters, a total of 19 VOCs analysis have been made available to be tested, using the technology of GC-FID.

PARAMETERS
  • Benzene
  • Toluene
  • o-xylene
  • m-xylene
  • p-xylene
  • Bromobenzene
  • n-butylbenzene
  • sec-butylbenzene
  • tert-butylbenzene
  • 2-chlorotoluene
  • 4-chlorotoluene
  • 1,2-dichlorobenzene
  • 1,3-dichlorobenzene
  • 1,4-dichlorobenzene
  • Ethylbenzene
  • Isopropylbenzene
  • n-propylbenzene
  • 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene
  • 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene
Essential elements to be analyzed in Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) water analysis

Drinking water is one of the most potential sources for ingestion of VOC. These are very toxic to the human body and can damage the nervous system, liver as well as the kidneys. They can cause skin irritation and are powerful carcinogens. Hence testing for a wide panel of these, is extremely imperative to include the most commonly encountered VOC with respect to drinking water.

OVERVIEW OF CONTAMINANTS AND THEIR POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS.
Contaminants
Symptoms
Cause
Health effects/Damages
Hard water
Soap curd, and scum in wash basins and bathtub. Whitish scale deposits in pipes
Calcium and Magnesium Salts
Kidney/bladder stones
Odor
Chlorine smell
Excessive Chlorination
Could occur from formation of disinfection byproducts
Phenol smell (Chemical odor)
Industrial waste seeping into surface or ground water supplies
Various compounds may be carcinogenic
Detergent odor, waste foams when drawn
Seepage of septic discharge into underground water supply.
Disease causing microorganisms may be present.
Taste
Salty or Brackish
High sodium content
Aesthetic only
Alkali taste
High dissolved mineral containing alkalinity
Aesthetic only
Metallic taste
Very low Ph water,
Heavy iron concentration, Leaching of lead and copper.
Leaching of metals from plumbing systems which can cause health problems.
Turbidity
Dirt, salt, clay
Suspended matter in surface water
Turbid water may contain disease causing microorganisms.
Discolored water (red ,iron water)
Brown red stains on sink and other porcelain bathroom fixtures, discolored clothing.
Dissolved iron in influent(water appears clear when first drawn)
Lung disease, unpleasant metallic taste, discoloration
Precipitate iron water will not be clear when drawn
Yellow water
Yellowish cast to water after softening or filtering or due to rusty pipes etc...
Tannins in water from decaying vegetation and peaty soil
Tangy taste, musty or earthy odor, stain laundry
Chlorine
Eye, nose irritation
Water additive used to disinfect microbes
Stomach discomfort
Fluoride
Dental fluorosis, pain and tenderness of bones etc..
Water addictive, erosion of natural deposits, discharge from fertilizer
Bone disease
Lead
 Appetite loss, abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue,  sleeplessness, irritability etc..
Corrosion of household plumbing systems,
Delays in physical and mental development, high blood pressure
pH
Lower pH (less than 7)
Acidic, soft, corrosive
Premature damage to metal piping, metallic or sour taste, staining of laundry
Higher pH (greater than 7)
Alkali taste. hard
Formation of deposits on dishes, utensils, laundry basins etc..
Microorganisms
(coli forms, cryptosporidium)
Vomiting, cramps, diarrhea etc..
Human and animal fecal waste
Gastrointestinal illness
 
PERMISSIBLE WATER LIMITS
Characteristics
Limits
pH
6.5-8
Total dissolved solids
500 Mg/L
Total hardness (as CaCo3)
Max 300 ppm
Dissolved oxygen
Min 10 Mg/L
Fluorides
Max 1 Mg/L
Turbidity
Max 5 NTU
Total iron
Max 0.3 ppm
Chloride
Max 250 Mg/L
Residual chlorine
Min 0.2 Mg/L
Acidity
Max Mg/L
Alkalinity
Max 200 Mg/L
Calcium as Ca
Max 75 Mg/L
Nitrate as (NO2)
Max 45 Mg/L

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